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BBC Report About Leslie Howard's Death

[BBC Report of Leslie Howard's Death] On Saturday, July 30, I posted on Facebook the 2014 BBC report on Leslie Howard's Death ...

About the Ibis and Its Fateful Flight
Tuesday, 1 June 1943
[Work In Progress - More to Follow]


There is no question as to who shot down the Ibis. The questions that remain are who ordered the shoot down and who was the target. As is evidenced by the passenger manifest below there were several passengers on the plane and at least one who gave up his seat at the last minute who could have been the target. The British government condemned the shoot down of the Ibis as a war crime but no Germans were ever prosecuted and the British files surrounding the tragedy remain sealed.

There is one point I would make strongly to anyone who believes that Leslie Howard was a spy. The Germans may have believed he was a spy and they may have shot down Howard's plane for that reason. But believing Howard was a spy and Howard actually being a spy are two different things. The Germans thought almost everyone was a spy.

Much has been made of the fact that Leslie Howard bumped passengers off the plane so that he could leave on 1 June 1943 instead of the next day, 2 June. However, Ronald Howard in his book, In Search of My Father: A Portrait of Leslie Howard, explains that his father would have left even sooner—at the end of May—except that the man in charge of the British Council's Film Division in Lisbon, Nevile Kearney, thought it would be a diplomatic coup if Howard's film, The First of the Few (1942), could be flown to Lisbon and shown at the Embassy Cinema. As soon as the film arrived and was shown on Monday night, 31 May, Howard and Alfred T. Chenhalls, a well-known and respected accountant whose company represented film and theater personalities and who was Leslie Howard's friend and traveling companion, saw no reason to delay and made arrangements to get on the soonest transport back to England. Howard had been away from home since 28 April on a lecture tour/business trip/propaganda mission/shoring-up-Allied-support junket arranged by the British Council he was not keen on in the first place and Howard was anxious to get back home, away from the excessive heat of Lisbon and the demands of a hectic schedule which had been set up for him without his knowledge or approval.(9)


[Leslie Howard and Alfred T. Chenhalls (to Howard's left)]

The Plane

[The Ibis]

[A DC-3 operated in period Scandinavian Airlines colors by
Flygande Veteraner flying over Lidingö, Sweden (1989)]


Ibis, BOAC Registration G-AGBB (Previously PH-ALI):

The Ibis, a Douglas DC-3, was named for the sacred bird. It was powered by two Wright Cyclone 1000 horsepower engines and had made its first flight in 1936. Her wingspan was 95' and her length 64'. Her highest speed was 210 mph, cruising speed 165 mph. She could go as high as 23,000' but generally cruised at 12,000' because she was unpressurized. She carried a crew of four. In the years before May 1940 the Ibis had been flying the Jakarta route to the Dutch East Indies. She was one of the few KLM Royal Dutch Airlines aircraft that wasn't destroyed on the tarmac at Schiphol when the Germans attacked the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. She was made serviceable and escaped to Shoreham, in England on 13 May, the crew spurred on by Winston Churchill's statement "I have nothing to offer but blood and toil and tears and sweat."(5)

The Ibis was then taken to Ringway, Manchester, for repairs and a new camouflage paint job* and after negotiations the British Air Ministry contracted with the Dutch government-in-exile to use the plane on the Bristol to Lisbon route making the Ibis one of the small aircraft in the fleet of Dakotas based at Whitchurch airfield that made regular flights to neutral Portugal.

Today the old airfield has largely disappeared under houses, but in 1943 it was Britain's only non-military international airport, and the Avon Gorge Hotel in Clifton was airline BOAC's temporary wartime headquarters. The particular Douglas DC-3 in which these passengers were to fly was fitted with fourteen seats (seven on each side) and this was regarded as the deluxe flight. The planes could carry up to twenty-one passengers, according to load, when fitted with extra seats. This particular plane had been attacked twice before, on 15 November 1942 and 19 April 1943(Wiki).

* It is difficult to see the camouflage paint in the photos below. Herbert Hintze, one of the Luftwaffe pilots who took part in the shoot down of the Ibis and who claims they mistook the plane for military aircraft, complained that the camouflage gave the plane a military appearance. However, Hintze's veracity comes into question with his claim that none of the pilots in the schwarm of eight who took part in the killing that day were aware of the Lisbon to Whitchurch flights. His claim is hard to believe since civilian aircraft had been flying that route for years and Hintze doesn't claim that was the group's first mission to protect U-Boats in the Bay of Biscay. Also, the Ibis had been attacked twice before, most likely by the same group of pilots. Also, the German wartime head of sabotage, General Erwin von Lahousen, claims that his Chief, Admiral Canaris, expressly forbade any sabotage attempts against civilian aircraft originating out of Portugal and traveled there himself to warn his intelligence officers not to allow acts of violence involving loss of civilian life.

Damage to the G-AGBB after the 15 November 1942 attack

Damage to the G-AGBB after the 15 November 1942 attack

The Shoot Down


Aircraft flying the Lisbon-Whitchurch route were allowed free access since the beginning of the war not only because both Allied and Axis powers respected the neutrality of Portugal, but also because Germany appreciated the outflow of information in the form of British newspapers and the flights served as a method of smuggling spies into England and for German prisoners of war to receive correspondence from home. German spies were posted at the Portela terminal to record who was boarding and departing.

The war over the Bay of Biscay heated up in 1942 after the Germans began attacking Allied shipping.(Wiki) The Ibis was attacked by a Messerschmitt Bf 110 fighter on 15 November 1942. The plane suffered damage to the left wing, engine and fuselage from cannon and machine gun fire but was able to complete its flight to Lisbon. (See photos of damage above.)

The plane was attacked again on 19 April 1943 avoiding a shoot down by dropping to just 50' above the surface of the ocean and then climbing rapidly into the clouds. The plane again suffered damage to the wing, fuselage and the fuel tank but completed its flight to Lisbon where repairs were made. It is interesting to note that although other planes flew this route, the Ibis was the only plane attacked three times.(Wiki)

No precautions were taken by the British government.

The BOAC flight number 777-A from Lisbon to Whitchurch airfield was scheduled to take off at 0730 on 1 June 1943 but was delayed five minutes when Howard left the plane to retrieve a package from customs containing women's hosiery.(9) Whitchurch received a message of departure from the Ibis and continued regular radio contact until 1054 GMT. At that time, when the Ibis was approximately 200 miles northwest of the coast of Spain, a Whitchurch radio operator heard the Radio Officer, van Brugge, say "we are being followed by an unknown aircraft. We are under attack by enemy aircraft." Eight German Luftwaffe Junkers Ju 88s took turns firing on the aircraft causing it to crash into the Bay of Biscay. All 17 on board died. (See passenger manifest below.)

The British government finally ordered that all BOAC flights from Lisbon be undertaken at night under the cover of darkness.

In the book Soldaten, the pilot of the German fighter plane discusses the event:
Dock: Whatever crossed our path was shot down. Once we even shot down – there were all sorts of bigwigs in it: seventeen people, a crew of four and fourteen passengers; they came from LONDON. There was a famous English film-star in it too, HOWARD. The English radio announced it in the evening. Those civil aircraft pilots know something about flying! We stood the aircraft on its head, with the fourteen passengers. They must all have hung on the ceiling! (Laughs) It flew at about 3200m. Such a silly dog, instead of flying straight ahead when he saw us, he started to take evasive action. Then we got him. Then we let him have it all right! He wanted to get away from us by putting on speed. Then he started to bank. Then first one of us was after him, and then another. All we had to do was to press the button, quietly and calmly. (laughs)
Heil: Did it crash?
Dock: Of course it did.
Heil: And did any of them get out?
Dock: No. They were all dead. Those fools don't try to make a forced landing, even if they can see that it's all up with them.(Wiki)
— Harald Welzer, Soldaten
Four of the eight German pilots who attacked the Ibis:
The following day a search was undertaken of the area where the Ibis went down according to the coordinates given in the last radio contact. A Short Sunderland flying boat from No. 461 Squadron RAAF, "N/461," searching for debris was attacked by eight Ju 88s and after a furious battle, managed to shoot down three of the attackers, scoring an additional three "possibles," before crash-landing at Praa-Sands, near Penzance.(Wiki)

BOAC posted this statement in The Times:
The British Overseas Airways Corporation regrets to announce that a civil aircraft on passage between Lisbon and the United Kingdom is overdue and presumed lost. The last message received from the aircraft stated that it was being attacked by enemy aircraft. The aircraft carried 13 passengers and a crew of four. Next-of-kin have been informed. 
[Unidentified News Article]

The New York Times Articles:

[The New York Times, Page 4, 3 June 1943]

[The New York Times, 3 June 1943]

[Previous article enlarged]

[Page 4 continued from Page 1]

[The New York Times, Obituaries of Howard
and Stonehouse printed on Page 4]




[The New York Times, 27 June 1943]

[The New York Times, 6 July 1943]

Theories

The Germans made so many conflicting claims about the plane—that it was covered in camouflage paint, that it was a bomber, that it was escorted by British bombers, that an air battle had been fought, that the crew had bailed out and left the passengers to be shot down, that the plane carried contraband—Ronald Howard decided he had to get to the truth. [More will be added on Ronald Howard's efforts.]

At the end of Ronald Howard's own investigation, he came to believe that the Germans, and in particular Joseph Goebbels, Minister of Enlightenment and Propaganda for Nazi Germany, wanted Leslie Howard dead and that is the sole reason for the shoot down. But Ronald believed that his father's death was not brought about because he was a spy. It was brought about because the Germans believed he was a spy—two very different things. Ronald also believed that Goebbels was jealous of and angry with Leslie Howard because of Howard's popularity and because Howard had made fun of him.

There was also the meeting in Madrid during Howard's tour with Conchita Montenegro, Howard's co-star in Never the Twain Shall Meet (1931). Montenegro claimed in an interview before her death that she had arranged a meeting while Howard was in Madrid in May 1943 between Howard and Francisco Franco with the help of her then boyfriend, Ricardo Giménez-Arnau, who later became her husband and Ambassador to the Holy See. Montenegro claimed that Howard had been asked by Churchill to use her to arrange the meeting to convince Franco not to enter the war on the side of the Axis powers. Montenegro claims that she met with Howard after the meeting supposedly took place but never talked to him about what happened. Some theorists conjecture that if the Germans knew about this meeting, they may have ordered the plane's destruction. However, this is just conjecture. There is no evidence that the meeting actually took place, let alone that it was known of by the Germans. And why bother killing Howard weeks after the meeting had already taken place?


[Leslie Howard and Conchita Montenegro
in Madrid, Spain, May 1943]

[Estel Eforgan's final analysis will appear here.]

After the war Ian Colvin, who wrote Flight 777: The Mystery of Leslie Howard, was able to track down Peter Friedlein, who had been a radio operator on one of the eight planes involved in the shoot down. Friedlein told Colvin that he remembered the incident, citing the weather conditions, their position, and the time of day. When asked by Colvin if they looked for survivors, Friedlein stated they did not follow the plane down due to cloud cover. However, in 1945 the Howard family was sent photographs of the wreckage by the Ministry of Civil Aviation, stating they confiscated the documents from a soldier captured in Rockwinkel earlier that year. Also, in its 14 June 1943 issue, Time magazine reported that the radio operator in Whitchurch heard the "Dutch pilot" aboard the Ibis state:
"I am being followed by strange aircraft. Putting on best speed. ...we are being attacked. Cannon shells and tracers are going through the fuselage. Wave-hopping and doing my best."
This would mean that the chase took place closer to the ocean than the German radio operator claimed.

Various theories*:
  1. The Germans believed that British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was aboard and the shoot down was a case of mistaken identity - This theory has been largely discounted even though Churchill propounded the theory in his memoir, The Hinge of Fate. Churchill had traveled along with Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden to North Africa in late May 1943 to meet with General Dwight D. Eisenhower. The Germans knew this and wanted to assassinate him on his way home. Alfred T. Chenhalls is supposedly the person who was mistaken for Churchill. Chenhalls was heavy set and smoked cigars. However, Howard and Chenhalls had been on the tour and watched and glared at by every German in the area for over a month.(9) It is hard to believe that the Germans had not grown accustomed to Chenhalls by then. Also hard to believe is that the Germans thought Churchill would be traveling alone, unescorted on an unarmed civilian aircraft. It was also rumored that Chenhalls was employed as a Churchill decoy by the British government; however, it is also hard to believe that the British government would place a decoy of Churchill on a civilian aircraft knowing the Germans had fighter planes ready to shoot it down. Why Churchill believed the mistaken identity theory is a bigger mystery. Along with the mistaken identity theory were rumors that British code breakers knew the Ibis would be shot down but kept it secret to conceal their knowledge of German code. But the most ridiculous rumor in the mistaken identity/code breakers group of theories is that Leslie Howard was advised of the decryption of the Enigma message and knew of the pending shoot down but boarded the plane anyway to "take one for the team." Anyone who has studied Howard would know that this is impossible because Howard would never have allowed women and children to board a plane he knew would be riddled with bullets, likely catch fire and crash into the ocean. Leslie Howard's Wikipedia page states that former CIA agent Joseph B. Smith claims in his book, Portrait of a Cold Warrior, that he (Smith) was briefed in 1957 by the NSA of the need for secrecy in the matter of Leslie Howard's death. It states that the "NSA claimed that Howard knew his aircraft was to be attacked by German fighters and sacrificed himself to protect the British code-breakers." I have ordered the book to verify these statements. I think it much more likely those who could have stopped the plane from taking off knew about the pending attack but said nothing in order to protect the Enigma project. This is the only logical reason I can see for the British keeping the records sealed for so long.
  2. The Germans wanted to kill Wilfrid Israel who had helped to evacuate and rescue thousands of Jews from The Holocaust.
  3. The Germans thought Frank Foley, who actually was a spy, was aboard and he was the intended victim.
  4. The Germans wanted to kill Tyrrell Shervington, who was also a real spy known as agent H.100 of the Special Operations Executive in its Iberian operation.
  5. Joseph Goebbels, Reich Minister of Propaganda, wanted Leslie Howard dead and ordered the shoot down himself because of his hatred of Leslie Howard over Howard's propaganda activities and because Howard made fun of Goebbels in Howard's film, "Pimpernel" Smith. Another theory in the same vein is that Goebbels was jealous of Howard's pre-war relationship with an internationally known but un-named actress. And there is the more general theory that Goebbels and the Germans merely wanted to demoralize Great Britain by killing one of its best loved citizens. Goebbels did boast of Howard's death in the newspaper Der Angriff ("The Attack") running the headline "Pimpernel Howard has made his last trip,"(Wiki) a reference to Howard's movies The Scarlet Pimpernel (1935) and "Pimpernel" Smith (1941).
  6. The Germans thought Leslie Howard was a spy and wanted to kill him.
  7. The Germans mistook Leslie Howard for R.J. Mitchell, the subject of Howard's movie The First of the Few (1942). However, Ronald Howard states in his book(9) that the movie had not been seen in Portugal so: (a) there is no reason to believe that anyone would have known what R.J. Mitchell looked like, (b) Mitchell did not appear in the movie, and (c) Mitchell died in 1937.
  8. The Germans believed the pilot and/or crew were working against Germany.
  9. The shoot down was a chance encounter, the plane being mistaken for a military aircraft even though it had no military markings. This theory is accepted by Ben Rosevink, a retired research technician at the University of Bristol, and son of BOAC Flight 777 flight engineer Engbertus Rosevink. In the 1980s, Rosevink interviewed three of the eight German pilots who shot down the plane and they convinced him they were not ordered to attack the aircraft. To admit that they knew it was a civilian plane but attacked it anyway, however, would be to admit to war crimes. If it was a mistake, why did the Germans make up so many stories afterwards to justify themselves? Why not just say it was a mistake by the pilots and discipline them? Could it be that this really was merely a chance encounter and that the Germans felt humiliated and didn't want to admit their error? (For an extended report of this theory, see Wikipedia "German pilots' account" and Leslie Howard: "Death.")
  10. Similar to theory Number 9 is the theory that the eight German pilots took it upon themselves to shoot down the civilian plane because it was there. In Leslie Ruth Howard's book, A Quite Remarkable Father: The Autobiography of Leslie Howard, she cites an Air Ministry report: "The eight aircraft were briefed to protect two U-boats and to undertake a rescue search. They failed to sight the U-boats, and, as the weather was unfavourable, they were probably on their way back to base when...a DC-3 was sighted...There is no evidence to suggest the crews had orders to attack this particular aircraft. They would, however, undoubtedly consider it their duty to attack any allied aircraft encountered in the course of their normal operational flights." This report, however, is from the same government that has been keeping the records sealed for almost 70 years.
*Theories do not include all the German excuses which were made up to explain why they murdered 17 civilians.

The Passengers and Crew

KLM's Flight 777-A/2L272* Passenger Manifest:
  1. Ivan J. Sharp, Director of the United Kingdom Commercial Corporation – A mining engineer of the UKCC, Mr. Sharp had been negotiating wolfram (tungsten) exports to the U.K. This valuable mineral was a principal steel-hardener in the manufacture of armaments, and Sharp's job had been to achieve a bigger allocation from producers in Spain and Portugal. He attended meetings on Tuesday mornings at the Ministry of Economic Warfare.
  2. Francis German Cowlrick, Continental Director, Babcock and Wilcox (Sponsored by Dept. of Overseas Trade) – Of the well-known firm of marine engineers, had been visiting their Iberian establishments.
  3. Tyrrell M. Shervington, Shell Manager in Lisbon (Sponsored by Ministry of Fuel & Power) – Shell-Mex Oil Company manager who lived in Lisbon, was going home on business and to see his son before he was posted on active service. Shervington's son became an RAF pilot and was killed in a bombing mission in 1944.(5) Shervington was the spy known as agent H.100 of the Special Operations Executive in its Iberian operation.
  4. Gordon T. Maclean, Inspector General of Consulates - According to Clare Colvin in the preface to Flight 777: The Mystery of Leslie Howard, written by Ian Colvin, Maclean's spot on the plane was originally designated for Frank Foley. Maclean convinced Foley to give up his seat so that Maclean could get Leslie Howard's autograph, Howard being Maclean's wife's favorite actor. Frank Foley was a member of the British intelligence community and the Twenty Committee. Foley is credited with helping thousands of Jewish families escape Nazi Germany before the outbreak of WWII.
  5. Kenneth Stonehouse, Washington correspondent of Reuters News Agency – On his way from Washington to London to take up an appointment as war correspondent with the American forces.
  6. Mrs. Evelyn Peggy Margetts Stonehouse, wife of above – Returning home to London with her husband with plans to join the WRNS.
  7. Mrs. Cecelia A. Paton**, wife(9) of the Cuban Consul, Liverpool – A late addition having been put on the passenger list the day before the flight by Geoffrey Stow, the Assistant Air Attaché.
  8. Wilfrid Barthold Jacob Israel, a prominent Anglo-German Jewish activist traveling on behalf of the Jewish Refugee Mission who had rescued thousands of Jews from Germany via the Kindertransport which he helped to set up. Israel was in Portugal and Spain at the same time Howard was there, assessing the Jewish refugee situation and helping some to obtain Palestine certificates.
  9. Father A.S. Holmes, Vice-President of the R.C. English College – Returning to London to discuss the appointment of a new President of the English College with Monsignor Cullen. Father Holmes left the plane after boarding due to a last minute phone call he received. According to Ronald Howard in his book In Search of My Father: A Portrait of Leslie Howard, the originator of the phone call was never found. It is interesting to note that on the 19 April 1943 attack on the plane one of the passengers was also a priest.(5)
  10. Mrs. Rotha Hutcheon***, wife of Lt. Col. Hutcheon, R.A.
  11. Petra Hutcheon, daughter of Col. & Mrs. Hutcheon – 11 years of age
  12. Carolina Hutcheon, daughter of Col. & Mrs. Hutcheon - 18 months
  13. Derek Partridge****, son of Major Frederick Partridge, OBE, (The Foreign Office) - Was returning home to Limpsfield, Surrey, to reunite with his mother and father after having spent three years in America. Ronald Howard, Leslie Howard's son, met Partridge by accident at a party later in his life. Derek would also be the narrator on Tom Hamilton's documentary, Leslie Howard: The Man Who Gave A DamnBumped to make room for Leslie Howard and Alfred T. Chenhalls.
  14. Dora Rowe, nanny accompanying Derek Partridge - Bumped to make room for Leslie Howard and Alfred T. Chenhalls.
  15. Leslie Howard
  16. Alfred T. Chenhalls, Accountant
Crew (all cleared by British intelligence):
  1. Captain Quirinus Tepas OBE, Senior Pilot
  2. Captain Kirk de Koning, Co-Pilot - Also aboard during the 1st and 2nd attacks
  3. Cornelis van Brugge, Radio Officer - Also known from the London-Melbourne race
  4. Engbertus Rosevink, Flight Engineer
    * Some sources show the flight number as 2L272
   ** Ronald Howard in his book(9) reports Mrs. Cecelia A. Paton as the wife of the Cuban Consul in Liverpool. No source is given. Colvin obviously did not have this same information because he notes in his work(5) the oddity that Mrs. Paton, a mere secretary, would be given priority over another passenger, in reference to her inclusion on the passenger list at the last moment.
  *** Mrs. Hutcheon (British born) and her daughters had been living in Canada. They were returning to join Col. Hutcheon (with the Canadian forces) in England. They had been refugees.
**** Derek Partridge and his nanny, Dora Rowe, had been in America since 1940. They had arrived the previous week in the Serpa Pinto, a Portuguese ship, from New York. They had been refugees.

In Leslie Howard's Wikipedia page George and William Cecil, the teenage sons of Cornelia Stuyvesant Vanderbilt, are named as having been bumped from the plane to make room for Howard and Chenhalls. I have not seen this in any other publication. The source of this information is Howard E. Covington, Lady on the Hill: How Biltmore Estate Became an American Icon. I have ordered the book to verify the facts.


[KLM/BOAC DC-3 G-AGBD on far left, rest BOAC lend-lease
Dakotas/Liberators at Portela, c. October 1943]

[Two KLM/BOAC DC-3s at Portela Airport, c. 1943]

[Lufthansa DC-3 between Portuguese and Spanish Airliners Portela, c. 1943]

Memorials

In 2009 the grandson of Ivan Sharp, who lives in Norwich and has the same name as his grandfather, arranged for a memorial plaque for the crew and passengers of BOAC Flight 777-A to be dedicated at Lisbon Airport. On 1 June 2010, a similar plaque, paid for by Sharp, was unveiled at Whitchurch Airport in Bristol and a brief memorial was held by friends and family of those killed on the flight.(Wiki)

Monument at Cedeira, Spain:

[Monument at Cedeira, Spain, to honor those
who lost their lives in the shoot down of the Ibis]

[Ceremony at the inauguration of the memorial plaque]

[Ceremony at the inauguration of the memorial plaque]

[Monument at Cedeira, Spain]

[Memorial Plaque]

[Leslie Howard memorial plaque in Spain]

Sources:
  1. Aviation Safety Network: Criminal Occurrence Description
  2. "British Air Liner Lost: Mr. Leslie Howard A Passenger, Attacked By Enemy." The Times, 3 June 1943, p. 4, column G.
  3. British Council Film CollectionLondon 1942
  4. Churchill, Winston S. The Hinge of Fate. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 1950.
  5. Colvin Ian. Flight 777: The Mystery Of Leslie Howard. London: Evans Brothers, 1957. ISBN 978-171590164
  6. Covington, Howard E., Jr. Lady on the Hill: How Biltmore Estate Became an American Icon. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley, 2006. ISBN 978-0-471-75818-1
  7. Film of Britain preparing for war in 1940 revealed by the British Council, The Telegraph, May 29, 2014
  8. Howard, Leslie, ed. with Ronald Howard. Trivial Fond Records. London: William Kimber & Co Ltd, 1982. ISBN 978-0-7183-0418-8.
  9. Howard, Leslie Ruth. A Quite Remarkable Father: The Biography of Leslie Howard. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1959.
  10. Howard, Ronald. In Search of My Father: A Portrait of Leslie Howard. London: St. Martin's Press, 1984. ISBN 0-312-41161-8.
  11. Inside Out investigates the disappearance of actor Leslie Howard, BBC ONE (West), Monday, June 2, 2003, on the 60th anniversary of Leslie Howard's death
  12. Macdonald, Bill. The True Intrepid: Sir William Stephenson and the Unknown Agents. Vancouver, BC: Raincoast Books 2002, ISBN 1-55192-418-8.
  13. Rey Ximena, José. El Vuolo de Ibis [The Flight of the Ibis] (Spanish). Madrid: Facta Ediciones SL, 2008. ISBN 978-84-934875-1-5.
  14. Smith, Joseph B. Portrait of a Cold Warrior. New York: Random House, 1976. ISBN 978-0-399-11788-6
  15. Stevenson, William. A Man Called Intrepid: The Incredible WWII Narrative of the Hero Whose Spy Network and Secret Diplomacy Changed the Course of History. Guilford, Delaware: Lyons Press, 1976, reissued in 2000. ISBN 1-58574-154-X.

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